Reference: D.P. Bentz, Journal of Cement and Concrete Composites, 28 (2), pp. 124-129 (2006)

Go back to Part I, Chapter 4, Section 10(c) Go back to Table of Contents

Modeling the Influence of Limestone Filler on Cement Hydration Using CEMHYD3D

D. P. Bentz
Materials and Construction Research Division
National Institute of Standards and Technology
100 Bureau Drive Stop 8615
Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8615 USA


The ASTM C150 standard specification for portland cement now permits the cement to contain up to 5 % of ground limestone. While these and much higher levels of limestone filler substitution have been employed in Europe and elsewhere for many years, changing the ASTM standard has been a slow process. Having computational tools to assist in better understanding the influence of limestone additions on cement hydration and microstructure development should facilitate the acceptance of these more economical and ecologically blended materials. With this in mind, the CEMHYD3D computer model for cement hydration has been extended and preliminarily validated for the incorporation of limestone at substitution levels up to 20 % by mass fraction. The hydration model has been modified to incorporate both the influence of limestone as a fine filler, providing additional surfaces for the nucleation and growth of hydration products, and its relatively slow reaction with the hydrating cement to form a monocarboaluminate (AFmc) phase, similar to the AFm phase formed in ordinary portland cement. The influence of limestone substitutions on hydration rates is seen to be a strong function of water-to-solids ratio, as a 20 % limestone substitution substantially modifies the effective water-to-cement ratio of the blended mixture.

Keywords: Blended cements (D), filler (D), hydration (A), modeling (E)

Go back to Part I, Chapter 4, Section 10(c) Go back to Table of Contents