Reference: D.P. Bentz, submitted to the Journal of Advances in Cement Research (2005).

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Lithium, Potassium, and Sodium Additions to Cement Pastes

Dale P. Bentz
Chemical Engineer
Building and Fire Research Laboratory
National Institute of Standards and Technology
Gaithersburg, MD 20899 USA
Phone: 001-301-975-5865
FAX: 001-301-990-6891
dale.bentz@nist.gov

Abstract

This paper investigates the influence of three alkali cations, namely lithium, potassium, and sodium, on the hydration rates and the developing capillary pore structures of hydrating cement pastes. A quantitative examination of these effects is obtained by applying a set of experimental techniques that includes isothermal calorimetry, loss-on-ignition measurements, and low temperature calorimetry. Low temperature calorimetry is used specifically to assess the percolation (connectivity) of pore networks with various size entryways. Differences amongst the influences of the alkalis are highlighted and discussed in terms of their intrinsic atomic characteristics.


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