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Scanning Electron Microscopy Imaging

The recent application of SEM and X-ray imaging to cement-based materials is summarized in Panel B. Images of the two CCRL cements analyzed in this research using these procedures ire provided in Fig. 2. Tables III and IV compare the measured area and perimeter phase fractions to the phase fractions calculated from the oxide compositions in Table I using the conventional Bogue calculation. 26 For Cement 116, the gypsum area fraction is somewhat high because of the presence of a large gypsum particle in the field of view selected for analysis, as shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Two-dimensional segmented images of (a-top) Cement 115 and (b-bottom) Cement 116 (C3S is red, C 2S is aqua, C3 is green, C4 is orange, and gypsum is pale green).

 

Table III. Phase Fractions for CCRL Cement 115
PhasePerimeter fraction Area fractionBogue volume fraction
C3S 0.5040.6050.547
C2S 0.2390.2210.214
C3A 0.0450.0320.081
C4AF 0.0760.0970.093
Gypsum 0.1360.0460.065

 

Table IV. Phase Fractions for CCRL Cement 116
PhasePerimeter fraction Area fractionBogue volume fraction
C3S 0.3990.5750.544
C2S 0.2420.1900.195
C3A 0.0840.0610.137
C4AF 0.0200.0310.054
Gypsum 0.2550.1420.071

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