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1 D. P. Bentz and E. J. Garboczi, "Modelling the Leaching of Calcium Hydroxide from Cement Paste: Effects on Pore Space Percolation and Diffusivity," Mater. Struct., 25, 523-33 (1992).

2 D. P. Bentz, E. J. Garboczi, and N. S. Martys, "Application of Digital-Image-Based Models to Microstructure, Transport Properties, and Degradation of Cement-Based Materials"; pp. 167-85 in The Modelling of microstructure and Its Potential for Studying Transport Properties and Durability. Edited by H. M. Jennings, J. Kropp, and K. L. Scrivener. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996.

3 F. H. Wittmann, P. E. Roelfstra, and H. Sadouki, "Simulation and Analysis of Composite Structures," Mater. Sci. Eng., 68, 239-48 (1984-1985).

4 P. E. Roelfstra, H. Sadouki, and F. H. Wittmann, "Le Beton Numerique (Numerical Concrete)," Mater. Struct., 18, 327-35 (1985).

5 H. M. Jennings and S. K. Johnson, "Simulation of Microstructure Development During the Hydration of a Cement Compound," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 69, 790-95 (1986).

6 D. Viehland, J. F. Li, L. J. Yuan, and Z. Xu, "Mesostructure of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) Gels in Portland Cement Paste: Short-Range Ordering, Nanocrystallinity, and Local Compositional Order," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 79 [7] 1731-44 (1996).

7 K. Van Breugel, "Simulation of Hydration and Formation of Structure in Hardening Cement-Based Materials"; Ph.D. Thesis. Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 1991.

8 K. Van Breugel, "Models for Prediction of Microstructural Development in Cement-Based Materials"; see Ref. 2, pp. 91-106.

9 P. Navi and C. Pipat, "Simulation of Effects of Small Inert Grains on Cement Hydration and Its Contact Surfaces"; see Ref. 2, pp. 227-40.

10 Y Xi, P. D. Tennis, and H. M. Jennings, "Mathematical Modeling of Cement Paste Microstructure by Mosaic Pattern: Part 1. Formulation," J. Mater. Res., 11 [8] 1943-52 (1996).

11 D. P. Bentz and E. J. Garbcozi, "Percolation of Phases in a Three-Dimensional Cement Paste Microstructural Model," Cem. Concr. Res., 21 [2] 325-44 (1991).

12 D. P. Bentz, P. Coveney, E. J. Garboczi, M. Kleyn, and P. E. Stutzman, "Cellular Automaton Simulations of Cement Hydration and Microstructure Development," Modell. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2 [4] 783-808 (1994).

13 D. P. Bentz and E. J. Garboczi, "Guide to Using HYDRA3D: A Three-Dimensional Digital-Image-Based Cement Microstructural Model," NISTIR No. 4746, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, 1992.

14 D. P. Bentz, "A Three-Dimensional Cement Hydration and Microstructure Program. 1. Hydration Rate, Heat of Hydration, and Chemical Shrinkage," NISTIR No. 5756, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, Nov. 1995.

15 F. Tzschichholz, H. J. Herrmann, and H. Zanni, "Reaction-Diffusion Model for the Hydration and Setting of Cement," Phys. Rev. E: Stat. Phys., Plasmas, Fluids, Relat. Interdiscip. Top., 53 [3] 2629-37 (1996).

16 E. J. Garboczi and D. P. Bentz, "Computer Simulation of the Diffusivity of Cement-Based Materials,", J. Mater. Sci., 27, 2083-92 (1992).

17 R. T. Coverdale, B. J. Christensen, J. M. Jennings, T. 0. Mason, D. P. Bentz, and E. J. Garboczi, Interpretation of Impedance Spectroscopy of Cement Paste via Computer Modeling Part 1: Bulk Conductivity and Offset Resistance," J. Mater. Sci., 30 [3] 712-19 (1995).

18 D. P. Bentz, D. A. Quenard, V. Baroghel-Bouny, E. J. Garboczi, and H. M. Jennings, "Modelling Drying Shrinkage of Cement Paste and Mortar: Pan 1. Structural Models from Nanometres to Millimetres," Mater. Struct., 28, 450- 58 (1995).

19 E. J. Garboczi and D. P. Bentz, "Modelling of the Microstructure and Transport Properties of Concrete," Constr. Bldg. Mater. , 10 [5] 293-300 (1996).

20 Cement and Concrete Reference Laboratory Proficiency Sample Program: Final Report on Portland Cement Proficiency Samples Number 115 and Number 116, Cement and Concrete Reference Laboratory, National Institute of Science and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, March, 1995.

21 Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars," ASTM Designation C 109. 1992 Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.01. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.

22 K. L. Scrivener, "The Microstructure of Anhydrous Cement and Its Effect on Hydration"; pp. 39-46 in Proceedings, Materials Research Society Symposia, Vol. 85. Edited by L. J. Struble and P. W. Brown. Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, 1987.

23 P. E. Stutzman, "Cement Clinker Characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy," Cem. Concr. Aggregates, 13 [2] 109-14 (1991).

24 D. Bonen and S. Diamond, "Application of Image Analysis to a Comparison of Ball Mill and High-Pressure Roller Mill Ground Cement"; pp. 101-19 in Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Cement Microscopy. International Cement Microscopy Association, 1991.

25 D. P. Bentz and P. E. Stutzman, "SEM Analysis and Computer Modelling of Hydration of Portland Cement Particles"; pp. 60-73 in Petrography of Cementitious Materials. Edited by S. M. DeHayes and D. Stark. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 1994.

26 H. F. W. Taylor, Cement Chemistry; pp. 62-63. Academic Press, London, U.K., 1990.

27 B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyalt, "Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results," NIST Technical Note No. 1297, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, Sept. 1994.

28 E. J. Prosen, P. W. Brown, G. J. Frohnsdorff, and F. L. Davis, "A Multichambered Microcalorimeter for the Investigation of Cement Hydration," Cem. Concr. Res., 15, 703-10 (1985).

29 M. Geiker, "Studies of Portland Cement Hydration: Measurements of Chemical Shrinkage and a Systematic Evaluation of Hydration Curves by Means of the Dispersion Model"; Ph.D. Thesis. Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1983.

30 E. Tazawa, S. Miyazawa, and T. Kasai, "Experimental Study on Mechanism of Autogeneous Shrinkage of Concrete," Cem. Concr. Res., 25, 288-92 (1995).

31 J.G. Berryman, "Measurement of Special Correlation Functions Using Image Processing Techniques," J. Appl. Phys., 57 [7] 2374-84 (1985).

32 A. M. Law and W. D. Kelton, Simulation Modeling and Analysis; pp. 258-59. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1982.

33 D. P. Bentz, E. J. Garboczi, P. J. P. Pimentia, and W. C. Carter, "Cellular Automaton Simulations of Surface Mass Transport Due to Curvature Gradients; Simulation of Sintering"; pp. 413-18 in Synthesis and Processing of Ceramics: Scientific Issues, Vol. 249. Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, 1992.

34 J. Bullard, E. J. Garboczi, W. C. Carter, and E. R. Fuller, "Numerical Methods for Computing Interfacial Mean Curvature," Comput. Mater. Sci., 4, 103-16 (1995).

35 S. Mindess and J. F. Young, Concrete. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1981.

36 J. F. Young and W. Hansen, "Volume Relationship for C-S-H Formation Based on Hydration Stoichiometry"; pp. 313-22 in Microstructural Development During Hydration of Cement, Vol. 235. Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, PA, 1986.

37 M. Fukuhara, S. Goto, K. Asaga, M. Daimon, and R. Kondo, "Mechanisms and Kinetics of C,AF Hydration with Gypsum," Cem. Concr. Res., 11, 407- 14 (1981).

38 Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 63rd ed; pp. D52-D95. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1982.

39 T. C. Powers, "Adsorption of Water by Portland Cement Paste during the Hardening Process," Ind. Eng. Chem., 27, 790-94 (1935).

40 J. Gutowitz (Ed.), Cellular Automata: Theory and Experiment. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1991.

41 S. Wolfram, Theory and Applications of Cellular Automata. World Scientific, Singapore, 1986.

42 P.J. P. Pimentia, E. J. Garboczi, and W. C. Carter, "Cellular Automaton Algorithm for Surface Mass Transport due to Curvature Gradients: Simulations of Sintering," Comput. Mater. Sci., 1, 63-77 (1992).

43 J.A. Spittle and S. G. R. Brown, "A Cellular Automaton Model of Steady-State Columnar-Dendritic Growth in Binary Alloys," J. Mater. Sci., 30, 3989-94 (1995).

44 S. G. R. Brown and N. B. Bruce, "Three-Dimensional Cellular Automaton Models of Microstructural Evolution During Solidification," J. Mater. Sci., 30, 1144-50 (1995).

45 A. Young and E. M. Corey, "Lattice Models of Biological Growth," Phys. Rev. A: Gen. Phys., 41 [12] 7024-32 (1990).

46 W. Schwarz, "Novel Cement Matrices by Accelerated Hydration of the Ferrite Phase in Portland Cement via Chemical Activation: Kinetics and Cementitious Properties," Adv. Cement-Based Mater., 2, 189-200 (1995).

47 A. M. Tenenbaum and M. J. Augenstein, Data Structures Using Pascal; pp. 230-38. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1986.

48 H. M. Jennings and L. J. Parrott, "Microstructural Analysis of Hardened Alite Paste, Part 2: Microscopy and Reaction Products," J. Mater. Sci., 21, 4053 (1986).

49 L. J. Parrott, M. Geiker, W. A. Gutteridge, and D. Killoh, "Monitoring Portland Cement Hydration: Comparison of Methods," Cem. Concr. Res., 20, 919-26 (1990).

50 R. A. Olson, B. J. Christensen, R. T. Coverdale, S. J. Ford, G. M. Moss, H. M. Jennings, T. 0. Mason, and E. J. Garboczi, "Interpretation of the Impedance Spectroscopy of Cement Paste via Computer Modelling Part III: Microstructural Analysis of Frozen Cement Paste," J. Mater. Sci., 30, 5078-86 (1995).

51 N. J. Carino, L. I. Knab, and J. R. Clifton, "Applicability of the Maturity Method to High-Performance Concrete," NISTIR No. 4819, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, May 1992.

52 T. Knudsen, "The Dispersion Model for Hydration of Portland Cement 1. General Concepts," Cem. Concr. Res., 14, 622-30 (1984).

53 J. J. Filliben, "DATAPLOT: Introduction and Overview," NBS Special Publication No. 667, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC, 1984.

54 P. W. Brown, "Kinetics of Tricalcium Aluminate and Tetracalcium Aluminoferrite Hydration in the Presence of Calcium Sulfate," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 76 [12] 2971-76 (1993).

55 E. Henderson, X. Turrillas, and P. Bames, "The Formation, Stability, and Microstructure of Calcium Sulphoaluminate Hydrates Present in Hydrated Cement Paste, Using in situ Synchrotron Energy-dispersive Diffraction," J. Mater. Sci., 30, 3856-62 (1995).

56 P. L. Pratt and A. Ghose, "Electron Microscope Studies of Portland Cement Microstructures during Setting and Hardening," Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, A310, 93-103 (1983).

57 T. Knudsen; personal communication, 1991.

58 B. Osbaeck and V. Johansen, "Particle Size Distribution and Rate of Strength Development of Portland Cement," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 72 [2] 197-201 (1989).

59 S. Tsivilis and G. Parissakis, "A Mathematical Model for the Prediction of Cement Strength," Cem. Coner. Res., 25 [1] 9-14 (1995).

60 F. F. Radjy and D. W. Vunic, "Heat Signature Testing of Concrete"; pp. 8-15 in Proceedings of Structural Materials Technology-An NDT Conference (Atlantic City, NJ, 1994). Techomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, 1994.

61 H. Munkholt, "Temperaturens Indflydelse paa Vands Fysiske Binding i Cement Pasta," 18-Points Report, The Institute of the Mineral Industry, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1983.

62 R. C. Tank and N. J. Carino, "Rate Constant Functions for Strength Development of Concrete," ACI Mater. J., 88 [1] 74-83 (1991).

63 N. J. Carino, "The Maturity Method: Theory and Application," Cem. Concr. Aggregates, 6 [2] 61-73 (1984).

64 A. Bentur, R. L. Berger, J. H. Kung, N. B. Milestone, and J. F. Young, "Structural Properties of Calcium Silicate Pastes: II, Effect of Curing Temperature," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 62 [7-8] 362-66 (1979).

65 Y. Cao and R. J. Detwiler, "Backscattered Electron Imaging of Cement Pastes Cured at Elevated Temperatures," Cem. Concr. Res. , 25 [3] 627-38 (1995).

66 C. Hua, P. Acker, and A. Erlacher, "Analyses and Models of the Autogeneous Shrinkage of Hardening Cement Paste," Cem. Concr. Res., 25 [7] 1457-68 (1995).

67 H. Justnes, A. Van Gemert, F. Verboven, and E. J. Sellevold, "Total and External Chemical Shrinkage of Low w/c Ratio Cement Pastes," Adv. Cem. Res., 8 [31] 121-26 (1996).

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