A microstructure defined by a digital image is already naturally discretized
and lends itself immediately to numerical computation of many useful
quantities. We use a finite element method (FEM) to estimate the elastic
properties of the model system. FEM uses a variational formulation of the
linear elastic equations and finds the solution by minimizing the elastic
energy using a fast conjugate gradient method. Each voxel is taken to be a
tri-linear finite element.
A strain is applied, with the average stress or the average elastic energy
giving the effective elastic modulus. The digital image is assumed to have
periodic boundary conditions. Most of the simulations were performed on a
modern workstation (500MHz Compaq XP1000). Each FEM simulation at 120^{3} required ~hour of CPU time and MB of memory. Further details
of the theory and the programs can be found elsewhere
[Garboczi and Day 1995,
Garboczi 1998, Arns 2001]. We assign to the rock skeleton
values of the elastic properties of quartz given by [Mavko 1998]: bulk modulus *K* = 37.0 GPa, shear modulus µ = 44.0 Gpa and mineral
density = 2.65 g/cm^{3}. We model the
water saturated case at *T* =200ºC and
40 MPa pressure [*K*_{Water} =
2.2 GPa, µ_{Water} = 0
GPa,
[Han 1986, Castagna 1993]], and the oil saturated case
(30 API oil) at
*T* = 200ºC and 25 MPa pressure (
*K*_{Oil} = 0.5 GPa,
µ_{Oil} = 0 GPa) using temperature adjusted moduli [Castagna 1993].
The choice of the water saturated condition is made to allow for
comparison with the experimental data from [Han 1986].

In order to obtain accurate numerical results it is necessary to estimate and minimize three sources of error: finite size effects, statistical fluctuations and discretization errors. These error analyses have not been carried out in the past due to limitations in computational speed. However, if one wishes to compare computations directly to experiment such error analyses must be carried out [Roberts and Garboczi 2000]. We discuss the three sources of error separately.

In the previous section, we argued that at the length scale of voxels the
averaging of the porosity is acceptable. To test if this cell size provides
good averaging of the elastic properties we compare data measured at 120^{3} , 160^{3}, and 240^{3} cells (see Figure
4(a)). The finite size
errors appear to be small for the 120^{3} cell size. To further quantify
these errors we discuss statistical uncertainties for the various cell sizes.
To estimate statistical uncertainties we bin the data as a function of
porosity, , with
bin sizes
= 0.025. The error bars reflect twice the standard error
(S.E. = / ), where is the standard deviation. There is
a 95% chance that the "true" value lies between the indicated standard
error bars shown in Figure 4(b). The results are accurate
to within 2-3% for most data points. The binned data is presented for
different cell sizes (120^{3}, 160^{3}, and 240^{3}).
Differences
between the predictions at the different cell sizes are well within statistical
error, indicating that finite size effects are acceptably small.

Finally, we consider the discretization error; the error due to the use of
discrete voxels to represent continuum objects. To do this we coarse-grain the
original images by generating realisations of the tomographic data sets at
integer multiples of the resolution of the original image
(i.e.,
*n* x 5.7 µm = 11.4 µm, 17.1 µm, ...).
To generate the images at poorer resolution we bin voxel clusters of
sizes *n*^{3} (*n* = 2, 3, 4) using a simple majority rule. It has been previously
shown [Roberts and Garboczi 2000] that the variation of an elastic property, *P*, follows

where is the voxel size, *a* is a
fitting parameter, and *P*_{0} is the "continuum" value
corresponding to infinite resolution. In
Figure 4(c) we show the scaling behavior of the discretization
error with for different porosities. Figure
4(d) shows the
change in elasticity with resolution along with the continuum values
given by Eqn.
1.
It is important to note that even at a resolution of
= 5.7
µm, the
predictions *P*() differ from the
"continuum" *P*_{0} value by up to 15%. The errors
increase approximately linearly with porosity. The
statistical error in the continuum limit *P*_{0}, is estimated
from Eqn. 1 using the standard deviations at
the different lattice sizes.