The chemical shrinkage of the cement pastes was measured following the general protocol developed by Geiker . A small volume (typically 5.0 mm high) of cement paste of known mass was placed in a glass vial and covered with water. A rubber stopper containing a calibrated capillary tube was placed on top of the glass vial, establishing an initial height of water within the capillary tube. A small drop of paraffin oil was added on top of the water meniscus within the capillary tube to minimize evaporative transfer. The vial was then secured in a constant temperature water bath and the chemical shrinkage was monitored by simply observing the drop of the water level in the capillary tube with time. In general, measurements of chemical shrinkage were performed over the course of 28 days and the results presented are the average of two specimens of similar heights. The maximum expanded uncertainty  in the calculated chemical shrinkage was estimated to be 0.001 mL/(g of cement) , assuming a coverage factor of 2 .